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This selected bibliography lists sources of additional information on related technologies, standards, and background on the DOI System.

© International DOI Foundation  •  Last Updated: February 8, 2016


Related technologies

Handle System®: Documentation.

The Vocabulary Mapping Framework (VMF): An Introduction.

Indecs™ framework: "The <indecs> Metadata Framework: Principles, model and data dictionary", Godfrey Rust and Mark Bide (2000).


References cited in ISO 26324, DOI System

Standards references

ISO 26324:2012 Information and documentation — Digital object identifier system (Information et documentation — Système d'identifiant numérique d'objet). ISO 26324 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee SC 9, Identification and description.

ANSI/NISO Z39.84-2010 Syntax for the Digital Object Identifier. The full standard can be downloaded as a PDF file for no charge from NISO.


Normative Reference of ISO 26324

Unicode Consortium: The Unicode Standard. The latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.


Other references cited in ISO 26324

Internet Engineering Task Force. RFC 3986, Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. January 2005.

Internet Engineering Task Force. RFC 4452, The "info" URI Scheme for Information Assets with Identifiers in Public Namespaces.

ISO/TC46/SC9 N417, Use cases for interoperability of ISO TC46/SC9 identifiers: background information for agenda item 9.7 of the ISO TC46/SC9 meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand.


Other ISO TC46/SC9 standards

ISO 2108, Information and documentation — International standard book number (ISBN)

ISO 3297, Information and documentation — International standard serial number (ISSN)

ISO 3901, Information and documentation — International Standard Recording Code (ISRC)

ISO 15706-1, Information and documentation — International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) — Part 1: Audiovisual work identifier

ISO 15707, Information and documentation — International Standard Musical Work Code (ISWC)

ISO/IEC 10646:2003, Information technology — Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS)

ISO/IEC 21000-6, Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) — Part 6: Rights Data Dictionary

ISO 21047, Information and documentation — International Standard Text Code (ISTC)

ISO 27729, Information and documentation — International standard name identifier (ISNI)

ISO 27730, Information and documentation — International standard collection identifier (ISCI)



Robert E. Kahn & Robert Wilensky. "A Framework for Distributed Digital Object Services" (May 1995) hdl:4263537/5001. Re-published in International Journal on Digital Libraries, (2006) 6(2): 115-123. doi:10.1007/s00799-005-0128-x, and reproduced here with permission of the publisher.

Rust, Godfrey. "Metadata: The Right Approach. An Integrated Model for Descriptive and Rights Metadata in E-commerce". D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 7/8 (July/August 1998) doi:10.1045/july98-rust.

Green, Brian & Bide, Mark. "Unique Identifiers: a brief introduction". Book Industry Communication/EDItEUR (February 1999).

Kahn, Robert E. & Cerf, Vinton G. "What is the Internet (And What makes it Work)?". (December 1999). Copy of a paper prepared for the Internet Policy Institute.

Paskin, Norman; "Towards a Rights Data Dictionary — Identifiers and Semantics at work on the net"; imi insights; EPS Ltd (June 2002).

Paskin, Norman. "On Making and Identifying a 'Copy'". D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 1 (January 2003) doi:10.1045/january2003-paskin.

"DOI: Starting a new generation" by David Worlock. Reproduced with permission from EPS Update (8 May 2003).

Paskin, Norman. "DOI: a 2003 Progress Report". D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 6 (June 2003) doi:10.1045/june2003-paskin.

"Not your Father's DOI: New Applications Show Wider Promise" by Steve Sieck. Reproduced with permission from EPS Insights (1 July 2003).

Paskin, Norman. "Components of DRM Systems: Identification and Metadata", in E. Becker et al (eds) "Digital Rights Management: Technological, Economic, Legal, and Political Aspects in the European Union" in the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag (2003) pp. 26-61.

NISO: Digital Identifiers Roundtable: report on Recommendations and Findings (March 13-14, 2006).

Paskin, Norman. "Identifier Interoperability: A Report on Two Recent ISO Activities". D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 4 (April 2006), doi:10.1045/april2006-paskin.

Interview with CNRI CEO Bob Kahn. "A different kind of Internet" by Wyatt Kash, Government Computer News (GCN) (May 14, 2009).

G.M. Garrity, L.M. Thompson, D.W. Ussery, N. Paskin, D. Baker, P. Desmeth, D.E. Schindel and P.S. Ong, Study on the Identification, Tracking and Monitoring of Genetic Resources, Convention on Biological Diversity, WG ABS 8, 9 - 15 November 2009, in particular, see section Persistent Identifiers, pp. 53 - 88.

"The Formation of Crossref", a Short History, 1999-2009.

Paskin, Norman, "Digital Object Identifier (DOI®) System", Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, 3rd Edition, 1:1, pp. 1586—1592, (2010), ISBN: 978-0-8493-9712-7. (Note: This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes; it is reproduced on this site with permission of the publisher but may not be distributed further. Go here for full public access to the DOI article.)


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